However, there is a difference as compared to the first round of model attempts in the mid-1990s:
back then the situation of delivery traffic in city centres was annoying – today it is very difficult and tomorrow it will be dramatic according to forecasts. Growth rates of 5 – 7 % in e-commerce in particular are exacerbating the situation due to the increase in parcel deliveries that this involves. Delivery bases and warehouse sites in cities are seen alongside a broad range of delivery methods, often still at the experimental stage: electric load-carrying bicycles are a reality, robots are still an experiment, and there are other options being seriously tried out such as using private individuals and much more besides. Despite the uncertainty as to which models will become established, one thing is certain: all currently conceivable logistics models require space near and in city areas.